Partitioning and transmutation (P&T) aims at reducing the quantity of actinides (and thus the radiotoxicity) for disposal within the high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Its purpose is ultimately to facilitate the geological disposal of actinide-containing HLW. To make this technologically complex process worthwhile, a reduction of the long-term radiotoxicity of HLW by a factor of at least one hundred is desirable. The first OECD/NEA system study of this subject, entitled Status and Assessment Report of Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (1999), studied the technologies having the potential to achieve this goal. However, the specific role of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) in fully closed fuel cycles was not addressed. The present, second, P&T system study, closes this gap and compares fast reactor (FR) and ADS-based actinide transmutation strategies in order to highlight the specific role that ADS might play. The main differences between ADS and FR with respect to reactor properties, fuel cycle requirements, economic aspects, and R&D needs are identified. P&T is introduced in the first two chapters. The comparative analysis using a consistent set of transmutation strategies is addressed in Chapter 3 and alternative approaches to these selected strategies are described in Chapter 4. The status of FR and ADS technologies is compared in Chapter 5; Chapter 6 analyses the safety aspects of both systems. The report addresses the economics of transmutation strategies in Chapter 7, the perceived R&D needs in Chapter 8 followed by a summary of the conclusions in chapter 9.
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