Objective This paper aims to provide some practical recommendations to reduce eye lens dose for workers exposed to X-rays in interventional cardiology and radiology and also to propose an eye lens correction factor when lead glasses are used. Methods Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the variation of eye lens exposure with operator position, height and body orientation with respect to the patient and the X-ray tube. The paper also looks into the efficiency of wraparound lead glasses using simulations. Computation results are compared with experimental measurements performed in Spanish hospitals using eye lens dosemeters as well as with data from available literature. Results Simulations showed that left eye exposure is generally higher than the right eye, when the operator stands on the right side of the patient. Operator height can induce a strong dose decrease by up to a factor of 2 for the left eye for 10-cm-taller operators. Body rotation of the operator away from the tube by 45°–60° reduces eye exposure by a factor of 2. The calculation-based correction factor of 0.3 for wraparound type lead glasses was found to agree reasonably well with experimental data. Conclusions Simple precautions, such as the positioning of the image screen away from the X-ray source, lead to a significant reduction of the eye lens dose. Measurements and simulations performed in this work also show that a general eye lens correction factor of 0.5 can be used when lead glasses are worn regardless of operator position, height and body orientation. © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica

The influence of operator position, height and body orientation on eye lens dose in interventional radiology and cardiology: Monte Carlo simulations versus realistic clinical measurements

Ferrari, P.
2016

Abstract

Objective This paper aims to provide some practical recommendations to reduce eye lens dose for workers exposed to X-rays in interventional cardiology and radiology and also to propose an eye lens correction factor when lead glasses are used. Methods Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the variation of eye lens exposure with operator position, height and body orientation with respect to the patient and the X-ray tube. The paper also looks into the efficiency of wraparound lead glasses using simulations. Computation results are compared with experimental measurements performed in Spanish hospitals using eye lens dosemeters as well as with data from available literature. Results Simulations showed that left eye exposure is generally higher than the right eye, when the operator stands on the right side of the patient. Operator height can induce a strong dose decrease by up to a factor of 2 for the left eye for 10-cm-taller operators. Body rotation of the operator away from the tube by 45°–60° reduces eye exposure by a factor of 2. The calculation-based correction factor of 0.3 for wraparound type lead glasses was found to agree reasonably well with experimental data. Conclusions Simple precautions, such as the positioning of the image screen away from the X-ray source, lead to a significant reduction of the eye lens dose. Measurements and simulations performed in this work also show that a general eye lens correction factor of 0.5 can be used when lead glasses are worn regardless of operator position, height and body orientation. © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica
Lead glasses;Correction factor;Eye lens dose;Interventional radiology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/1563
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