Interventional radiology and cardiology guarantee high benefits for patients, but are known to be associated with a high level of radiation exposure of medical staff. The recently suggested decrease of the annual dose limit for the eye lens, from 150 to 20 mSv, caused a need for a reconsideration of practices ensuring sufficient protection for the lens of the eyes of medical staff. In such context the study of the scattered radiation around the operator's head could help in finding the best solutions to be adopted for the ceiling-suspended shield and lead glasses in the most common situations in interventional practices. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed with anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms to simulate interventional practice projections. For each projection the effect of changing selected parameters on the evaluated scattered radiation towards the operator's head has been calculated. The variety of modelled situations provides plentiful material regarding the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation, useful to improve eye lens radiation protection, such as the following: (a) Glasses, which provide shielding from both lateral and bottom-up scattered radiation, can reduce by ten times the exposure to the most exposed eyes; (b) The ceiling-suspended shield offers valuable protection, but such effectiveness can diminish by 90% if the shielding is not correctly positioned; (c) The transition from femoral to radial access usually intensifies the scattered radiation toward the operator head (a factor of 1.5 for AP projection), but for RAO projections, a reduction of the order by two to three times, in the case of radial access, can be seen, due to the protection provided by the image receptor. The detailed fluence outcomes show that there is a preferential direction of the impinging scattered radiation that should be considered when radiation protection options are evaluated or when a dedicated eye lens dosemeter is used for monitoring. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Monte Carlo study of the scattered radiation field near the eyes of the operator in interventional procedures

Ferrari, P.
2016

Abstract

Interventional radiology and cardiology guarantee high benefits for patients, but are known to be associated with a high level of radiation exposure of medical staff. The recently suggested decrease of the annual dose limit for the eye lens, from 150 to 20 mSv, caused a need for a reconsideration of practices ensuring sufficient protection for the lens of the eyes of medical staff. In such context the study of the scattered radiation around the operator's head could help in finding the best solutions to be adopted for the ceiling-suspended shield and lead glasses in the most common situations in interventional practices. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was employed with anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms to simulate interventional practice projections. For each projection the effect of changing selected parameters on the evaluated scattered radiation towards the operator's head has been calculated. The variety of modelled situations provides plentiful material regarding the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation, useful to improve eye lens radiation protection, such as the following: (a) Glasses, which provide shielding from both lateral and bottom-up scattered radiation, can reduce by ten times the exposure to the most exposed eyes; (b) The ceiling-suspended shield offers valuable protection, but such effectiveness can diminish by 90% if the shielding is not correctly positioned; (c) The transition from femoral to radial access usually intensifies the scattered radiation toward the operator head (a factor of 1.5 for AP projection), but for RAO projections, a reduction of the order by two to three times, in the case of radial access, can be seen, due to the protection provided by the image receptor. The detailed fluence outcomes show that there is a preferential direction of the impinging scattered radiation that should be considered when radiation protection options are evaluated or when a dedicated eye lens dosemeter is used for monitoring. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.
lead glasses;shielding;medical staff dose monitoring;Monte Carlo;Eye lens;interventional cardiology;interventional radiology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/1589
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