In this paper, the preparation and chemical-physical characterization of a composite material made of silicon nanoparticles (nSi) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for using as an anode for lithium-ion batteries are reported. The nSi/RGO composite was synthesized by microwave irradiation followed by a thermal treatment under reducing atmosphere of a mixture of nSi and graphene oxide, and characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA. The nanostructured material was used to prepare an electrode, and its electrochemical performance was evaluated in a lithium cell by galvanostatic cycles at various charge rates. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO4 cathode to fabricate a full lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated as a function of the discharge rate and cycle number. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.