In the last years, electric vehicles (EVs) are getting significant consideration as an environmental-sustainable and cost-effective alternative over conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEs), for the mitigation of the dependence from fossil fuels and for reduction of Green-House Gasses (GHGs) emission. However, many challenges are still ongoing to their large scale implementation. Among them, the negative impact on the electrical grid operation in case of an uncoordinated contemporary charging of a huge number of EVs. In the recent literature different solutions are proposed for handling the peak demand of EVs and the related problems. One answer is offered by the implementation of EV charging strategies, through aggregation agents, for containing the impact on the grid, guaranteeing the quality of the service. The implementation of a real charging strategy is strictly related to a deployment of smart-grid technologies, such as smart meters, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). In particular ESSs are playing a fundamental role in the general smart grid paradigm, and can become fundamental for the integration in the new power systems of EV fast charging stations of the last generation: in this case the storage can have peak shaving and power quality functions and also to make the charge time shorter. In the present paper, an overview on the different types of EVs charging stations, in reference to the present international European standards, and on the storage technologies for the integration of EV charging stations in smart grid is reported. Then a real implementation of EVs fast charging station equipped with an ESS is deeply described. The system is a prototype, designed, implemented and now available at ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) labs. A wide experimental activity has been performed on the prototype system in order to test its functionalities in the integration in a smart grid available at the same ENEA lab, including a smart metering system. The integration has been possible thanks to the use of a customized communication protocol, developed by the researchers and here described. The results of the experimental tests show that the system has a good performance in the implementation of peak shaving functions, in respect of the main distribution grid, making the prototype like a network nearly zero-impact system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||EV fast charging stations and energy storage technologies: A real implementation in the smart micro grid paradigm|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|