Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect male reproductive function. Many dioxin-like POPs exert their effects by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway. We analysed whether gene-environment interactions between polymorphisms in AHR (R554K) and AHR repressor (AHRR P185A) and serum levels of markers of POP exposure 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) are associated with 21 parameters of male reproductive function in 581 proven-fertile European and Greenlandic men. In Greenlandic men, AHR variants significantly modified the association between serum levels of both p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and inhibin B levels, sperm chromatin integrity, and seminal zinc levels. In the total cohort, interactions between AHRR variants and serum levels of CB-153 were associated with sperm chromatin integrity and the expression of the pro-apoptotic marker protein Fas. The data indicate that susceptibility to adverse effects of POP exposure on male reproductive function is dependent on polymorphisms in genes involved in AHR signalling. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.