The occurrence of three common antifouling biocides (Irgarol, Diuron and dichlofluanid) was investigated, both in winter and summer, in two Italian coastal areas bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea: the Gulf of Napoli (Southern Italy) and the Gulf of La Spezia (Northern Italy). Dichlofluanid was always below the limit of detection, while Irgarol and Diuron were detected in the Gulf of Napoli, at concentrations ranging from 0.8 ng/L to 134.5 ng/L, and from 1.6 ng/L to 34.8 ng/L, respectively. In the Gulf of La Spezia, the amounts were in the range <1.0 -28.2 ng/L, for Irgarol, and <0.2 and 9.7 ng/L, for Diuron. Overall, the biocide levels increased from winter to summer (the boating season), mostly in the Gulf of Napoli. In addition, the temporal trend for the selected biocides in the Gulf of Napoli showed a sharp decrease of the Diuron contamination, in winter and summer. Based on the field concentrations, a negligible risk to the aquatic environment in the Gulfs of Napoli and La Spezia was highlighted by probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
|Titolo:||Antifouling biocides (Irgarol, Diuron and dichlofluanid) along the Italian Tyrrhenian coast: Temporal, seasonal and spatial threats|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|