Studies of organics and trace metals of the resin fraction of Nigerian bitumen were carried out with an opinion to establish the environmental consequences of the fossil fuel and as well as characterize them. Bitumen samples were extracted from oil sands via Soxhlet extraction procedure using toluene as the extracting solvent. The bitumen samples were deasphaltened to obtain maltene by dissolving the samples in n-pentane (1:40). Column chromatography was used to fractionate the maltene into its components (saturates, aromatics, and resin) using silica gel as adsorbent and dissimilar solvents of varying polarity (n-hexane for saturates, toluene for aromatics, and methanol for resins). The organic compounds of the resin fraction were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophometry (FTIR) and the elemental concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP-OES). The infrared spectra of all the resin samples presented distinctive bands including expected polar functional groups which confirmed that the resin was cleanly eluted from the bitumen samples. The concentrations of the analyzed trace metals in the resin fraction were found to be high compared to other fractions and this was confirmed by their T-test values. Fe had the highest average concentration of 34.81 ± 14.37 mg/kg and a range of 19.35–47.48 mg/kg, while Mn had the least mean concentration of 0.94 ± 0.71 mg/kg and a range of 0.35–1.88 mg/kg. The result of cross-plot analysis revealed that resin fraction has strong and positive inter elemental correlation with the NSO and asphaltene fraction of the same bitumen samples. The overall results indicated that processing of the bitumen and/or its resin may cause catalyst poisoning and fouling, corrosion of equipment and pipelines, and particulate emissions into the environment and therefore adequate demetalisation of the fossil fuel must be done before processing. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
|Titolo:||Chemical analysis of resin fraction of Nigerian bitumen for organic and trace metal compositions|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|