Nano-scale devices based on zinc oxide (ZnO) are expected to be widely used as building-blocks of future innovative sensors due to outstanding properties of this semiconductive material including presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, biocompatibility. Zinc oxide nanostructures can be also conceived as ultra-high efficiency nanogenerators to harvest electrical energy from the strain vibrational energy in order to drive an array of nanosensors. In fact most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO elongated micro/nanostructures, such as wires, rods and pillars. In order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures, in an integrated manner. In this paper, we report on the brittle-to-ductile transition that occurs when reducing the size down to the nanoscale, which has been rarely documented. Then we report on focused ion beam machined of high aspect ratio nanowires and pillars and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Finally, we present new simulation results concerning ZnO nanowires under lateral bending obtained through the classical approach and the finite element method. Here we use a new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Titolo:||Advanced mechanical and electrical characterization of piezoelectric ZnO nanowires for electro-mechanical modeling of enhanced performance sensors|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|