Background: Some lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks occur in Mediterranean Countries. They are still largely unexploited and cause considerable problems due to the lack of cost-effective harvesting, storage and disposal technologies. Recent studies found that some basidiomycetous yeasts are able to accumulate high amount of intracellular lipids for biorefinery processes (i.e., biofuels and biochemicals). Accordingly, the above biomass feedstocks could be used as carbon sources (after their pre-treatment and hydrolysis) for lipid accumulation by oleaginous yeasts. Results: Cardoon stalks, stranded driftwood and olive tree pruning residues were pre-treated with steam-explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis for releasing free mono- and oligosaccharides. Lipid accumulation tests were performed at two temperatures (20 and 25 °C) using Leucosporidium creatinivorum DBVPG 4794, Naganishia adeliensis DBVPG 5195 and Solicoccozyma terricola DBVPG 5870. S. terricola grown on cardoon stalks at 20 °C exhibited the highest lipid production (13.20 g/l), a lipid yield (28.95%) close to the maximum theoretical value and a lipid composition similar to that found in palm oil. On the contrary, N. adeliensis grown on stranded driftwood and olive tree pruning residues exhibited a lipid composition similar to those of olive and almonds oils. A predictive evaluation of the physical properties of the potential biodiesel obtainable by lipids produced by tested yeast strains has been reported and discussed. Conclusions: Lipids produced by some basidiomycetous yeasts grown on Mediterranean lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks could be used as supplementary sources of oils for producing biofuels and biochemicals. © 2018 The Author(s).