Background. In the ocean, the variability of environmental conditions found along depth gradients exposes populations to contrasting levels of perturbation, which can be reflected in the overall patterns of species genetic diversity. At shallow sites, resource availability may structure large, persistent and well-connected populations with higher levels of diversity. In contrast, the more extreme conditions, such as thermal stress during heat waves, can lead to population bottlenecks and genetic erosion, inverting the natural expectation. Here we examine how genetic diversity varies along depth for a long-lived, important ecosystem-structuring species, the red gorgonian, Paramuricea clavata. Methods. We used five polymorphic microsatellite markers to infer differences in genetic diversity and differentiation, and to detect bottleneck signs between shallow and deeper populations across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We further explored the potential relationship between depth and environmental gradients (temperature, ocean currents, productivity and slope) on the observed patterns of diversity by means of generalized linear mixed models. Results. An overall pattern of higher genetic diversity was found in the deeper sites of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. This pattern was largely explained by bottom temperatures, with a linear pattern of decreasing genetic diversity with increasing thermal stress. Genetic differentiation patterns showed higher gene flow within sites (i.e., shallow vs. deeper populations) than between sites. Recent genetic bottlenecks were found in two populations of shallow depths. Discussion. Our results highlight the role of deep refugial populations safeguarding higher and unique genetic diversity for marine structuring species. Theoretical regression modelling demonstrated how thermal stress alone may reduce population sizes and diversity levels of shallow water populations. In fact, the examination of time series on a daily basis showed the upper water masses repeatedly reaching lethal temperatures for P. clavata. Differentiation patterns showed that the deep richer populations are isolated. Gene flow was also inferred across different depths; however, not in sufficient levels to offset the detrimental effects of surface environmental conditions on genetic diversity. The identification of deep isolated areas with high conservation value for the red gorgonian represents an important step in the face of ongoing and future climate changes. Subjects Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics, Marine Biology, Climate Change Biology.

Genetic diversity increases with depth in red gorgonian populations of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean

Cocito S.;
2019

Abstract

Background. In the ocean, the variability of environmental conditions found along depth gradients exposes populations to contrasting levels of perturbation, which can be reflected in the overall patterns of species genetic diversity. At shallow sites, resource availability may structure large, persistent and well-connected populations with higher levels of diversity. In contrast, the more extreme conditions, such as thermal stress during heat waves, can lead to population bottlenecks and genetic erosion, inverting the natural expectation. Here we examine how genetic diversity varies along depth for a long-lived, important ecosystem-structuring species, the red gorgonian, Paramuricea clavata. Methods. We used five polymorphic microsatellite markers to infer differences in genetic diversity and differentiation, and to detect bottleneck signs between shallow and deeper populations across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. We further explored the potential relationship between depth and environmental gradients (temperature, ocean currents, productivity and slope) on the observed patterns of diversity by means of generalized linear mixed models. Results. An overall pattern of higher genetic diversity was found in the deeper sites of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. This pattern was largely explained by bottom temperatures, with a linear pattern of decreasing genetic diversity with increasing thermal stress. Genetic differentiation patterns showed higher gene flow within sites (i.e., shallow vs. deeper populations) than between sites. Recent genetic bottlenecks were found in two populations of shallow depths. Discussion. Our results highlight the role of deep refugial populations safeguarding higher and unique genetic diversity for marine structuring species. Theoretical regression modelling demonstrated how thermal stress alone may reduce population sizes and diversity levels of shallow water populations. In fact, the examination of time series on a daily basis showed the upper water masses repeatedly reaching lethal temperatures for P. clavata. Differentiation patterns showed that the deep richer populations are isolated. Gene flow was also inferred across different depths; however, not in sufficient levels to offset the detrimental effects of surface environmental conditions on genetic diversity. The identification of deep isolated areas with high conservation value for the red gorgonian represents an important step in the face of ongoing and future climate changes. Subjects Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics, Marine Biology, Climate Change Biology.
Atlantic Ocean; Climate change; Depth refugia; Genetic diversity; Mediterranean Sea; Paramuricea clavata
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/51605
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