Aneuploidy is regarded as a hallmark of cancer, however, its role is complex with both pro- and anti-carcinogenic effects evident. In this IWGT review, we consider the role of aneuploidy in cancer biology; cancer risk associated with constitutive aneuploidy; rodent carcinogenesis with known chemical aneugens; and chemotherapy-related malignant neoplasms. Aneuploidy is seen at various stages in carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between induced aneuploidy occurring after exposure and clonal aneuploidy present in tumours is not clear. Recent evidence indicates that the induction of chromosomal instability (CIN), may be more important than aneuploidy per se, in the carcinogenic process. Down Syndrome, trisomy 21, is associated with altered hematopoiesis in utero which, in combination with subsequent mutations, results in an increased risk for acute megakaryoblastic and lymphoblastic leukemias. In contrast, there is reduced cancer risk for most solid tumours in Down Syndrome. Mouse models with high levels of aneuploidy are also associated with increased cancer risk for particular tumours with long latencies, but paradoxically other types of tumour often show decreased incidence. The aneugens reviewed that induce cancer in humans and animals all possess other carcinogenic properties, such as mutagenicity, clastogenicity, cytotoxicity, organ toxicities, hormonal and epigenetic changes which likely account for, or interact with aneuploidy, to cause carcinogenesis. Although the role that aneuploidy plays in carcinogenesis has not been fully established, in many cases, it may not play a primary causative role. Tubulin-disrupting aneugens that do not possess other properties linked to carcinogenesis, were not carcinogenic in rodents. Similarly, in humans, for the tubulin-disrupting aneugens colchicine and albendazole, there is no reported association with increased cancer risk. There is a need for further mechanistic studies on agents that induce aneuploidy, particularly by mechanisms other than tubulin disruption and to determine the role of aneuploidy in pre-neoplastic events and in early and late stage neoplasia.
|Titolo:||Role of aneuploidy in the carcinogenic process: Part 3 of the report of the 2017 IWGT workgroup on assessing the risk of aneugens for carcinogenesis and hereditary diseases|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|