Mechanical properties of fibres reinforced composite materials depend on the type of fibres used, their percentage as well as their arrangement and orientation. As computer technology continues to improve, high-resolution computed tomography has proven to be an ideal instrument to analyse the structure of this kind of materials. In this context, various approaches have been proposed to detect the fibre orientation distribution and the relative degree of anisotropy of these composite materials. Some of these approaches are based on ‘individual’ measurements that isolate and reconstruct each single fibre and measure its properties. On the other hand, other approaches capture the characteristics of the fibre distribution by means of ‘global’ measurements computed on the entire set of tomographic data. The first methods are more precise but also more complex because they demand a procedure able to segment and separate each single fibre in the polymer, whereas the latter are easier to implement and can be applied even if fibre segmentation and separation is not effective or practicable. In this paper, a global method based on the technique called volume orientation – originally proposed several years ago to study the anisotropy of bone structures – is applied to fibre reinforced composite materials. This new approach does not require data acquired at very high resolution nor very complex procedures for individual segmentation of the fibres, but only binarised data through common thresholding procedures. The effectiveness of the proposed new approach is demonstrated by comparing it to the results obtained from a method based on individual measurements: when resolution and images quality are good enough, the volume orientation method gives results quite similar to the other approach. The analysis of three different case studies demonstrates its flexibility and its validity as an alternative to methods based on the separation of individual fibres, which are not always usable. The samples have been carefully selected in order to range between different attenuation contrast levels and also include a specimen subjected to mechanical testing which can be of great practical interest. Lay Description: Mechanical properties of fibres reinforced composite materials depend on the type of fibres used, their percentage as well as their arrangement and orientation. Today, both destructive and nondestructive techniques can be used in order to assess the fibre orientation. As computer technology continues to improve, high-resolution computed tomography has proven to be an ideal instrument to analyse the structure of this kind of materials, and then the fibre orientation distribution inside the material. In this context, various strategies have been proposed. Some of them require measurements that isolate and reconstruct each single fibre and measure its properties. On the other hand, other approaches capture the characteristics of the fibre distribution by means of ‘global’ measurements computed on the entire set of tomographic data. The first methods are more precise but also more complex because they demand a procedure able to detect and separate each single fibre in the polymer, whereas the latter are easier to implement and can be applied even if fibre segmentation and separation is not effective or practicable. In this paper, a global method based on the technique called volume orientation – originally proposed several years ago to study the microstructure of bone tissues – is applied to fibre reinforced composite materials. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that this new approach is easier to use. As a matter of fact, it does not require data acquired at very high resolution nor very complex procedures for individual segmentation of the fibres, but only binarised data through common thresholding procedures. The effectiveness of the proposed new approach is shown by comparing it to the results obtained from a method based on individual measurements: when spatial resolution and images quality are good enough, the volume orientation method gives results quite similar to the other already used approach. The analysis of three different case studies demonstrates its flexibility and its validity as an alternative to methods based on the separation of individual fibres, which are not always usable. The samples have been carefully selected in order to range between different attenuation contrast levels and different nature of the fibres (mineral, vegetable or synthetic). A specimen subjected to mechanical testing is also included, because of its great practical interest.

Volume orientation: a practical solution to analyse the orientation of fibres in composite materials

de Pascalis F.;Nacucchi M.
2019

Abstract

Mechanical properties of fibres reinforced composite materials depend on the type of fibres used, their percentage as well as their arrangement and orientation. As computer technology continues to improve, high-resolution computed tomography has proven to be an ideal instrument to analyse the structure of this kind of materials. In this context, various approaches have been proposed to detect the fibre orientation distribution and the relative degree of anisotropy of these composite materials. Some of these approaches are based on ‘individual’ measurements that isolate and reconstruct each single fibre and measure its properties. On the other hand, other approaches capture the characteristics of the fibre distribution by means of ‘global’ measurements computed on the entire set of tomographic data. The first methods are more precise but also more complex because they demand a procedure able to segment and separate each single fibre in the polymer, whereas the latter are easier to implement and can be applied even if fibre segmentation and separation is not effective or practicable. In this paper, a global method based on the technique called volume orientation – originally proposed several years ago to study the anisotropy of bone structures – is applied to fibre reinforced composite materials. This new approach does not require data acquired at very high resolution nor very complex procedures for individual segmentation of the fibres, but only binarised data through common thresholding procedures. The effectiveness of the proposed new approach is demonstrated by comparing it to the results obtained from a method based on individual measurements: when resolution and images quality are good enough, the volume orientation method gives results quite similar to the other approach. The analysis of three different case studies demonstrates its flexibility and its validity as an alternative to methods based on the separation of individual fibres, which are not always usable. The samples have been carefully selected in order to range between different attenuation contrast levels and also include a specimen subjected to mechanical testing which can be of great practical interest. Lay Description: Mechanical properties of fibres reinforced composite materials depend on the type of fibres used, their percentage as well as their arrangement and orientation. Today, both destructive and nondestructive techniques can be used in order to assess the fibre orientation. As computer technology continues to improve, high-resolution computed tomography has proven to be an ideal instrument to analyse the structure of this kind of materials, and then the fibre orientation distribution inside the material. In this context, various strategies have been proposed. Some of them require measurements that isolate and reconstruct each single fibre and measure its properties. On the other hand, other approaches capture the characteristics of the fibre distribution by means of ‘global’ measurements computed on the entire set of tomographic data. The first methods are more precise but also more complex because they demand a procedure able to detect and separate each single fibre in the polymer, whereas the latter are easier to implement and can be applied even if fibre segmentation and separation is not effective or practicable. In this paper, a global method based on the technique called volume orientation – originally proposed several years ago to study the microstructure of bone tissues – is applied to fibre reinforced composite materials. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that this new approach is easier to use. As a matter of fact, it does not require data acquired at very high resolution nor very complex procedures for individual segmentation of the fibres, but only binarised data through common thresholding procedures. The effectiveness of the proposed new approach is shown by comparing it to the results obtained from a method based on individual measurements: when spatial resolution and images quality are good enough, the volume orientation method gives results quite similar to the other already used approach. The analysis of three different case studies demonstrates its flexibility and its validity as an alternative to methods based on the separation of individual fibres, which are not always usable. The samples have been carefully selected in order to range between different attenuation contrast levels and different nature of the fibres (mineral, vegetable or synthetic). A specimen subjected to mechanical testing is also included, because of its great practical interest.
Anisotropy; composite materials; microtomography; volume orientation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/51683
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