Third generation PVs are progressing day by day due to the easy fabrication techniques and material costs. Among all the third generation PVs, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) technology have been developed and are coming to the commercialization level sooner than other competitive technologies . The scale up of this technology is fundamental in order to go to the commercialization level. This chapter will resume the results regarding the development of perovskite solar modules showing the scalable and cost-effective realization process for the module production. The aim of this chapter is the correlation between efficiency, scalability and stability that result as crucial hot topics in PSC technology. Recently, PSCs opened new opportunities for the development of cost-effective thin-film photovoltaic technology, reaching a power conversion efficiency (PCE) record up to 22%. Although many efforts have been made in order to enhance the photovoltaic performance, challenging issues concerning the up-scaling process and stability retard the exploitation of the PSC technology at the industrial level. Firstly, we will discuss about the working mechanism of the device and the most used materials related to several device structures (NIP or PIN) where the perovskite layer (I) is placed between the electron (N) and the hole (P) transport materials. Several architectures will be discussed with respect to the PV performance, the manufacturing flow and the cost. We will deeply discuss about the coating techniques as the main bottleneck to carry out the up-scaling process. In our knowledge, the state of art for perovskite solar modules shows a best PCE of 15 % on 4 cm2 realized by spin coating technique. Besides, the result show the feasibility of the PSC technology for the realization of high efficiency solar device, the main issue is referred to the scaling up of the process up to 100 cm2 without affecting the device performance. With this aim, we will show the results related to the deposition processes of the perovskite layer such like spin coating, blade coating, slot die coating, spray coating and the realization methods reported in literature. Additionally, we will discuss the main bottlenecks and the available way outs to overcome the up-scaling issues. Furthermore, we will discuss the optimization of the interconnection design using a fully laser processed modules. The series-interconnections have been optimized to minimize the detrimental effect of the resistive losses on the final photovoltaic performance. Especially, the patterning procedures play a major role to make this action. The P1-P2-P3 laser ablations or mechanical scribes were used to obtain high aspect ratio (AR), defined as the ratio between the active area and the aperture area (defined as the sum of the active area plus the interconnection area).
|Titolo:||Perovskite Solar Modules: Correlation Between Efficiency and Scalability|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|