In less than a decade, the extensive studies performed on halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) permitted to reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 24%. The studies performed on lab-scale PSCs has revealed that PCE, hysteresis, and stability are widely dependent on the quality of perovskite crystals, including crystallinity, morphology, and surfaces/interfaces characteristics. Such ample knowledge and experience has laid a solid foundation for further exploration and development of large-scale fabrication toward perovskite modules and panels. This chapter will first summarize the unique properties of halide perovskite such as crystal structure, energy band properties, charge transport, recombination, and ferroelectric properties. A detailed discussion is devoted to perovskite crystallization (from liquid phase) that involves a classical nucleation/growth mechanism. The crystal growth includes three stages: solution supersaturation, nucleation, and subsequent growth toward a large crystal, which, depending on the deposition method, could also pass through stable or metastable intermediate phases. Different deposition methods will be presented including one-step techniques based on solvent/vacuum/gas quenching and two-step deposition based on crystal engineering approach or vapor-assisted process. Single-junction and multijunction PSCs are discussed in a specific section, and the different device architectures are presented. The development of tandem solar cells, such as perovskite/silicon, attracts the interest of the scientific community being an effective approach to overcome the Shockey–Queisser limit formulated for an ideal single cell with 1.34 eV band gap achieving a maximum PCE of 33.7%. Beside the efficiency, stability is one of the key challenges for industrial exploitation of PSCs. Degradation mechanisms depending on materials, bias conditions, light soaking, and temperature are also discussed in the chapter. The last section of the chapter is devoted to large area fabrication of perovskite modules. We will discuss the optimization of interconnections between adjacent cells by using a fully laser process. The P1–P2–P3 laser ablations are used to this end and to reduce inactive regions of the modules

Perovskite solar cells

Palma, Alessandro Lorenzo;
2020

Abstract

In less than a decade, the extensive studies performed on halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) permitted to reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 24%. The studies performed on lab-scale PSCs has revealed that PCE, hysteresis, and stability are widely dependent on the quality of perovskite crystals, including crystallinity, morphology, and surfaces/interfaces characteristics. Such ample knowledge and experience has laid a solid foundation for further exploration and development of large-scale fabrication toward perovskite modules and panels. This chapter will first summarize the unique properties of halide perovskite such as crystal structure, energy band properties, charge transport, recombination, and ferroelectric properties. A detailed discussion is devoted to perovskite crystallization (from liquid phase) that involves a classical nucleation/growth mechanism. The crystal growth includes three stages: solution supersaturation, nucleation, and subsequent growth toward a large crystal, which, depending on the deposition method, could also pass through stable or metastable intermediate phases. Different deposition methods will be presented including one-step techniques based on solvent/vacuum/gas quenching and two-step deposition based on crystal engineering approach or vapor-assisted process. Single-junction and multijunction PSCs are discussed in a specific section, and the different device architectures are presented. The development of tandem solar cells, such as perovskite/silicon, attracts the interest of the scientific community being an effective approach to overcome the Shockey–Queisser limit formulated for an ideal single cell with 1.34 eV band gap achieving a maximum PCE of 33.7%. Beside the efficiency, stability is one of the key challenges for industrial exploitation of PSCs. Degradation mechanisms depending on materials, bias conditions, light soaking, and temperature are also discussed in the chapter. The last section of the chapter is devoted to large area fabrication of perovskite modules. We will discuss the optimization of interconnections between adjacent cells by using a fully laser process. The P1–P2–P3 laser ablations are used to this end and to reduce inactive regions of the modules
978-0-08-102762-2
Halide perovskitem Perovskite photovoltaic modulesm Photovoltaicsm Printing technologiesm Solar cells
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/52464
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