The safety features of the future nuclear fusion reactors are one of the key issues for their attractiveness if compared with the fission plants. In fusion devices, accidents with high release of radioactive materials have low probabilities because the most part of abnormal transients lead to passive plasma shutdown. It does not mean that radiological source terms such tritium and activated dust are not generated and released, but their inventory does not increase during abnormal events. Therefore, the source term inventory has to be assessed during normal operation and traced when accidents occur. For this reason, a study for qualification and quantification of the tritium and dust source term (DTS) was established with the aim to understand their production, deposition, and penetration in the vacuum vessel (VV) and in the breeding blanket (BB). The main concern is source term release during the main accident scenarios to comply with a future licensing process. In case of abnormal event scenarios, the source term inventory involved in the release changes and requires a different confinement approach and mitigation. For the estimation of the source term in the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Station (DEMO), a methodology was developed. The methodology scales the tritium and DTS inside the VV from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the European Power Plant Conceptual Study, and reports the tritium generated inside the breeder blanket from data quantified in other studies for DEMO. In this article, the methodology was updated and tritium and DTS for DEMO 2016 design were estimated. Moreover, the tritium and dust release pathways were highlighted according to different accidental scenarios. These results were obtained for all blanket concepts, which are analyzing in the ongoing DEMO EUROFusion project. The values estimated in this article will be used in the safety analyses to evaluate releases or to quantify the operational limits starting from values postulated in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

Estimation of tritium and dust source term in european DEMOnstration fusion reactor during accident scenarios

Porfiri M. T.
2019

Abstract

The safety features of the future nuclear fusion reactors are one of the key issues for their attractiveness if compared with the fission plants. In fusion devices, accidents with high release of radioactive materials have low probabilities because the most part of abnormal transients lead to passive plasma shutdown. It does not mean that radiological source terms such tritium and activated dust are not generated and released, but their inventory does not increase during abnormal events. Therefore, the source term inventory has to be assessed during normal operation and traced when accidents occur. For this reason, a study for qualification and quantification of the tritium and dust source term (DTS) was established with the aim to understand their production, deposition, and penetration in the vacuum vessel (VV) and in the breeding blanket (BB). The main concern is source term release during the main accident scenarios to comply with a future licensing process. In case of abnormal event scenarios, the source term inventory involved in the release changes and requires a different confinement approach and mitigation. For the estimation of the source term in the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Station (DEMO), a methodology was developed. The methodology scales the tritium and DTS inside the VV from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the European Power Plant Conceptual Study, and reports the tritium generated inside the breeder blanket from data quantified in other studies for DEMO. In this article, the methodology was updated and tritium and DTS for DEMO 2016 design were estimated. Moreover, the tritium and dust release pathways were highlighted according to different accidental scenarios. These results were obtained for all blanket concepts, which are analyzing in the ongoing DEMO EUROFusion project. The values estimated in this article will be used in the safety analyses to evaluate releases or to quantify the operational limits starting from values postulated in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.
Breeding blanket; DEMO; EUROFusion; Safety; Source term; Tritium; Vacuum vessel
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/53997
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