The Water-Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) Breeding Blanket (BB) is a key component in charge of ensuring Tritium production, shield the Vacuum Vessel and remove the heat generated by plasma thermal radiation and nuclear reactions. It relies on PbLi eutectic alloy adopted as breeder and neutron multiplier and refrigerate by subcooled pressurized water. The last function is fulfilled by two independent cooling systems: First Wall (FW) that faces the plasma heat flux and the Breeding Zone (BZ) that removes the deposited power of neutron and photon interaction. Several layouts of WCLL BB system have been investigated in the last years to identify a configuration that guarantees Eurofer temperature below the limit (550 °C) and good thermal-hydraulic performances. This research activity focuses on the FW cooling system based on the WCLL BB 2018 design of DEMO 2017 baseline, investigating the cooling performances in order to optimize the FW design, reducing the amount of water that affects the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) and improves the efficiency of the Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS), verifying the reliability to deliver coolant at adequate design temperature (328 °C) to the PHTS. Different solutions have been considered and analyzed focusing on three specific positions along the poloidal direction: the equatorial cells in the Central Outboard Segment (COB) and Inboard Segment (IB), where there is the maximum deposited power and low Heat Flux (HF), and the apical cell of the IB, impacted by the highest HF but with low deposited power. For each FW design, several thermal-hydraulic steady-state analyses have been performed, as well as sensitivity analyses to evaluate the response of the systems under different cooling configuration, changing the position and the number of channels. Furthermore, a transient analysis reproducing the Dwell-Pulse phase of the DEMO fusion reactor with the optimized configuration of the Outboard FW layout has been performed to study the behavior of the FW cooling system subjected to the pulsed operation. The research activity aims at laying the basis for the finalization of the WCLL BB design, pointing out relevant thermal-hydraulic aspects. The analyses have been carried out using a CFD approach, thus a 3D finite volume model of each configuration has been developed, adopting the commercial ANSYS CFX code. The goal of the study is to compare the different FW cooling system layouts, identifying and discussing advantages and key issues from the thermal-hydraulic point of view. The results show that the coolant system of FW can safely remove the high plasma HF and nuclear heat deposition with a reduction of water channels, delivering coolant to the FW PHTS heat exchanger at the design temperature.

Optimization of the first wall cooling system for the DEMO WCLL blanket

Del Nevo A.;
2020

Abstract

The Water-Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) Breeding Blanket (BB) is a key component in charge of ensuring Tritium production, shield the Vacuum Vessel and remove the heat generated by plasma thermal radiation and nuclear reactions. It relies on PbLi eutectic alloy adopted as breeder and neutron multiplier and refrigerate by subcooled pressurized water. The last function is fulfilled by two independent cooling systems: First Wall (FW) that faces the plasma heat flux and the Breeding Zone (BZ) that removes the deposited power of neutron and photon interaction. Several layouts of WCLL BB system have been investigated in the last years to identify a configuration that guarantees Eurofer temperature below the limit (550 °C) and good thermal-hydraulic performances. This research activity focuses on the FW cooling system based on the WCLL BB 2018 design of DEMO 2017 baseline, investigating the cooling performances in order to optimize the FW design, reducing the amount of water that affects the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) and improves the efficiency of the Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS), verifying the reliability to deliver coolant at adequate design temperature (328 °C) to the PHTS. Different solutions have been considered and analyzed focusing on three specific positions along the poloidal direction: the equatorial cells in the Central Outboard Segment (COB) and Inboard Segment (IB), where there is the maximum deposited power and low Heat Flux (HF), and the apical cell of the IB, impacted by the highest HF but with low deposited power. For each FW design, several thermal-hydraulic steady-state analyses have been performed, as well as sensitivity analyses to evaluate the response of the systems under different cooling configuration, changing the position and the number of channels. Furthermore, a transient analysis reproducing the Dwell-Pulse phase of the DEMO fusion reactor with the optimized configuration of the Outboard FW layout has been performed to study the behavior of the FW cooling system subjected to the pulsed operation. The research activity aims at laying the basis for the finalization of the WCLL BB design, pointing out relevant thermal-hydraulic aspects. The analyses have been carried out using a CFD approach, thus a 3D finite volume model of each configuration has been developed, adopting the commercial ANSYS CFX code. The goal of the study is to compare the different FW cooling system layouts, identifying and discussing advantages and key issues from the thermal-hydraulic point of view. The results show that the coolant system of FW can safely remove the high plasma HF and nuclear heat deposition with a reduction of water channels, delivering coolant to the FW PHTS heat exchanger at the design temperature.
Blanket engineering
Breeding blanket
CFD
FW System
WCLL
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/55545
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