Preimplantation embryo manipulations during standard assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have significant repercussions on offspring. However, few studies to date have investigated the potential long‐term outcomes associated with the vitrification procedure. Here, we performed an experiment to unravel the particular effects related to stress induced by embryo transfer and vitrification techniques on offspring phenotype from the foetal period through to prepuberal age, using a rabbit model. In addition, the focus was extended to the liver function at prepuberal age. We showed that, compared to naturally conceived animals (NC), offspring derived after embryo exposure to the transfer procedure (FT) or cryopreservation‐transfer procedure (VT) exhibited variation in growth and body weight from foetal life to prepuberal age. Strikingly, we found a nonlinear relationship between FT and VT stressors, most of which were already present in the FT animals. Furthermore, we displayed evidence of variation in liver function at prepuberal age, most of which occurred in both FT and VT animals. The present major novel finding includes a significant alteration of the steroid biosynthesis profile. In summary, here we provide that embryonic manipulation during the vitrification process is linked with embryo phenotypic adaptation detected from foetal life to prepuberal age and suggests that this phenotypic variation may be associated, to a great extent, with the effect of embryo transfer.

Effect of embryo vitrification on the steroid biosynthesis of liver tissue in rabbit offspring

Diretto G.;
2020

Abstract

Preimplantation embryo manipulations during standard assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have significant repercussions on offspring. However, few studies to date have investigated the potential long‐term outcomes associated with the vitrification procedure. Here, we performed an experiment to unravel the particular effects related to stress induced by embryo transfer and vitrification techniques on offspring phenotype from the foetal period through to prepuberal age, using a rabbit model. In addition, the focus was extended to the liver function at prepuberal age. We showed that, compared to naturally conceived animals (NC), offspring derived after embryo exposure to the transfer procedure (FT) or cryopreservation‐transfer procedure (VT) exhibited variation in growth and body weight from foetal life to prepuberal age. Strikingly, we found a nonlinear relationship between FT and VT stressors, most of which were already present in the FT animals. Furthermore, we displayed evidence of variation in liver function at prepuberal age, most of which occurred in both FT and VT animals. The present major novel finding includes a significant alteration of the steroid biosynthesis profile. In summary, here we provide that embryonic manipulation during the vitrification process is linked with embryo phenotypic adaptation detected from foetal life to prepuberal age and suggests that this phenotypic variation may be associated, to a great extent, with the effect of embryo transfer.
IGF‐I
RT‐qPCR
Assisted reproductive technologies
Cholesterol
Cryopreservation
Embryo
Metabolome
Steroid biosynthesis
Stress
Female
Liver
Rabbits
Cryopreservation
Embryo Transfer
Animals
Cholesterol
Embryo, Mammalian
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/56483
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