Bee pollinators are an important guild delivering a fundamental input to European agriculture due to the ecological service they provide to crops in addition to the direct economic revenues from apiculture. Bee populations are declining in Europe as a result of the effects of several environmental stressors, both natural and of anthropic origin. Efforts are ongoing in the European Union (EU) to improve monitoring and management of pollinator populations to arrest further declines. Genetically modified (GM) crops are currently cultivated in a limited area in Europe, and an environmental risk assessment (ERA) is required prior to their authorization for cultivation. The possible impacts of GM crops on pollinators are deemed relevant for the ERA. Existing ecotoxicological studies indicate that traits currently expressed in insect-resistant GM plants are unlikely to represent a risk for pollinators. However, new mechanisms of insect resistance are being introduced into GM plants, including novel combinations of Cry toxins and double strand RNA (dsRNA), and an ERA is required to consider lethal and sublethal effects of these new products on nontarget species, including insect pollinators. The evaluation of indirect effects linked to the changes in management practices (e.g. for herbicide-tolerant GM crops) is an important component of EU regulations and a requirement for ERA. This paper reviews current approaches used to test the sensitivity of pollinators to GM plants and their products to determine whether sufficient data are being provided on novel GM plants to satisfy EU risk assessment requirements. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
|Titolo:||Biosafety of bee pollinators in genetically modified agro-ecosystems: Current approach and further development in the EU|
ARPAIA, SALVATORE (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|