Tritium hazard is related to its radioactive nature. It has characteristics that present a special challenge for health-risk assessment and measurement procedures. Tritium hazard will be investigated considering tritiated water in liquid phase, gaseous form, tritium oxide (HTO) and special tritium compounds. The different ways of tritium irradiation will be considered. External irradiation will be discussed and the higher effort will be devoted to the analysis of the tritium intake in the human body through inhalation, ingestion and diffusion through body skin. The main health physics aspects connected with tritium will be exposed considering the following: parameters for risk estimation, risks due to multiple exposition from different physical and chemical form of tritium, compounds and from additional radiation sources, specific dose contributions due to the intake of tritium in its different forms, intake prevention and recovery, low level tritium exposure, regulatory limits for tritium release and disposal. Methods for sampling and measuring tritium will then be exposed. Among the others the following techniques will be considered: Removable contamination collection with a smear-test filter, Tritium in air measurement with ion-chamber and gas flow proportional counters, Tritium in water analysis with low-level liquid scintillation counters, Passive tritium oxide sampling for indoor atmosphere monitoring. Consideration about measurement effectiveness for obtaining the needed levels of accuracy will be issued taking into account the determination of the main parameters need to characterize a tritium contaminated area. Radio-toxicological analysis for assessing the tritium intake will be also described and discussed. ©2013 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
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