Control of instabilities such as ELMs and sawteeth is considered an important ingredient in the development of reactor-relevant scenarios. Various forms of ELM pacing have been tried in the past to influence their behavior using external perturbations. One of the main problems with these synchronization experiments resides in the fact that ELMs are periodic or quasi-periodic in nature. Therefore, after any pulsed perturbation, if one waits long enough, an ELM is always bound to occur. To evaluate the effectiveness of ELM pacing techniques, it is crucial to determine an appropriate interval over which they can have a real influence and an effective triggering capability. In this paper, three independent statistical methods are described to address this issue: Granger causality, transfer entropy and recurrence plots. The obtained results for JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) indicate that the proposed techniques agree very well and provide much better estimates than the traditional heuristic criteria reported in the literature. Moreover, their combined use allows for the improvement of the time resolution of the assessment and determination of the efficiency of the pellet triggering in different phases of the same discharge. Therefore, the developed methods can be used to provide a quantitative and statistically robust estimate of the triggering efficiency of ELM pacing under realistic experimental conditions. © 2016 EURATOM.

How to assess the efficiency of synchronization experiments in tokamaks

Frigione, D.
2016

Abstract

Control of instabilities such as ELMs and sawteeth is considered an important ingredient in the development of reactor-relevant scenarios. Various forms of ELM pacing have been tried in the past to influence their behavior using external perturbations. One of the main problems with these synchronization experiments resides in the fact that ELMs are periodic or quasi-periodic in nature. Therefore, after any pulsed perturbation, if one waits long enough, an ELM is always bound to occur. To evaluate the effectiveness of ELM pacing techniques, it is crucial to determine an appropriate interval over which they can have a real influence and an effective triggering capability. In this paper, three independent statistical methods are described to address this issue: Granger causality, transfer entropy and recurrence plots. The obtained results for JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) indicate that the proposed techniques agree very well and provide much better estimates than the traditional heuristic criteria reported in the literature. Moreover, their combined use allows for the improvement of the time resolution of the assessment and determination of the efficiency of the pellet triggering in different phases of the same discharge. Therefore, the developed methods can be used to provide a quantitative and statistically robust estimate of the triggering efficiency of ELM pacing under realistic experimental conditions. © 2016 EURATOM.
recurrence plots;transfer entropy;Granger causality;ELM pacing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/651
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