Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important vegetable crop that provides a unique pungent sensation when eaten. Through construction of a pepper variome map, we examined the main groups that emerged during domestication and breeding of C. annuum, their relationships and temporal succession, and the molecular events underlying the main transitions. The results showed that the initial differentiation in fruit shape and pungency, increase in fruit weight, and transition from erect to pendent fruits, as well as the recent appearance of large, blocky, sweet fruits (bell peppers), were accompanied by strong selection/fixation of key alleles and introgressions in two large genomic regions. Furthermore, we identified Up, which encodes a BIG GRAIN protein involved in auxin transport, as a key domestication gene that controls erect vs pendent fruit orientation. The up mutation gained increased expression especially in the fruit pedicel through a 579-bp sequence deletion in its 5′ upstream region, resulting in the phenotype of pendent fruit. The function of Up was confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing. Taken together, these findings constitute a cornerstone for understanding the domestication and differentiation of a key horticultural crop.

Pepper variome reveals the history and key loci associated with fruit domestication and diversification

Giuliano G.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an important vegetable crop that provides a unique pungent sensation when eaten. Through construction of a pepper variome map, we examined the main groups that emerged during domestication and breeding of C. annuum, their relationships and temporal succession, and the molecular events underlying the main transitions. The results showed that the initial differentiation in fruit shape and pungency, increase in fruit weight, and transition from erect to pendent fruits, as well as the recent appearance of large, blocky, sweet fruits (bell peppers), were accompanied by strong selection/fixation of key alleles and introgressions in two large genomic regions. Furthermore, we identified Up, which encodes a BIG GRAIN protein involved in auxin transport, as a key domestication gene that controls erect vs pendent fruit orientation. The up mutation gained increased expression especially in the fruit pedicel through a 579-bp sequence deletion in its 5′ upstream region, resulting in the phenotype of pendent fruit. The function of Up was confirmed by virus-induced gene silencing. Taken together, these findings constitute a cornerstone for understanding the domestication and differentiation of a key horticultural crop.
2022
blocky fruit pepper
Capsicum
domestication
fruit orientation
fruit shape
narrow fruit pepper
pungency
sweet pepper
variome
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/67589
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