The awareness of the plastic issue is rising in recent years. Our seas and coastal seawaters are investigated with the aim to evaluate the possible fate, behavior and the impact of these novel contaminants upon marine biota. In particular, benthic organisms are exposed to micro(nano)plastics that sink and accumulated on the seabed. Sea urchins can be prone to the plastic impact for all their lifespan with effect that can be extended upon the trophic cascade since their key role as grazer organisms. Moreover, they are largely used in the assessment of contaminant impact both as adult individuals and as early larval stages. This review analyzes the recent literature about the chemical and physical hazards posed by diverse polymers to sea urchins, in relation to their peculiar characteristics and to their size. The search was based on a query of the keyword terms: microplastic _ OR nanoplastic_AND Sea urchins in Web of Science and Google Scholar. The effects provoked by exposure of different sea urchin biological form are highlighted, considering both laboratory exposure and collection in real world. Additional focus has also been given upon the exposure methods utilized in laboratory test and in the existing limitations in the testing procedures. In conclusion, the micro(nano)plastics major impact seemed to be attributable to leaching compounds, however variability and lacking of realisms in the procedures do not allow a full understanding of the hazard posed by micro(nano)plastics for sea urchins. Finally, the work provides insights into the future research strategies to better characterize the actual risk for sea urchins.

Physical and chemical threats posed by micro(nano)plastic to sea urchins

Manzo S.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The awareness of the plastic issue is rising in recent years. Our seas and coastal seawaters are investigated with the aim to evaluate the possible fate, behavior and the impact of these novel contaminants upon marine biota. In particular, benthic organisms are exposed to micro(nano)plastics that sink and accumulated on the seabed. Sea urchins can be prone to the plastic impact for all their lifespan with effect that can be extended upon the trophic cascade since their key role as grazer organisms. Moreover, they are largely used in the assessment of contaminant impact both as adult individuals and as early larval stages. This review analyzes the recent literature about the chemical and physical hazards posed by diverse polymers to sea urchins, in relation to their peculiar characteristics and to their size. The search was based on a query of the keyword terms: microplastic _ OR nanoplastic_AND Sea urchins in Web of Science and Google Scholar. The effects provoked by exposure of different sea urchin biological form are highlighted, considering both laboratory exposure and collection in real world. Additional focus has also been given upon the exposure methods utilized in laboratory test and in the existing limitations in the testing procedures. In conclusion, the micro(nano)plastics major impact seemed to be attributable to leaching compounds, however variability and lacking of realisms in the procedures do not allow a full understanding of the hazard posed by micro(nano)plastics for sea urchins. Finally, the work provides insights into the future research strategies to better characterize the actual risk for sea urchins.
2022
Embriotoxicity
Paracentrotus lividus
Plastic leachates
Plastic suspensions
Polymers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/70548
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