Fungal infections are the main cause of decay on fresh fruit during postharvest phase determining severe losses. Postharvest control is performed by fungicides, but their intense use have aroused issue relating to environmental protection and human health prompting to search alternative control means. The use of biofuel-used seaweed extracts by a supercritical carbon dioxide technique could be a valid alternative during postharvest handling of fresh fruit. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro and in vivo activity of extracts from two brown seaweeds (Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida) and three red seaweeds (Porphyra umbilicalis, Eucheuma denticulatum and Gelidium pusillum) against three postharvest pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa and Penicillium digitatum) using three concentrations of extract (10, 20 and 30 g L−1). The total content of fatty acids of the extracts was determined by CG-MS, those of polysaccharides by HIC, and phenolic compounds (phlorotannins) by HPLC-DAD. Twenty fatty acids were quantified in the extracts, while three polysaccharides categories and three phlorotannins classes were identified only in brown seaweed extracts. L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis showed the highest antifungal efficacy on in vitro cultures of the pathogens. L. digitata and U. pinnatifida completely inhibited mycelia growing and conidial germination of B. cinerea and M. laxa at the highest dose tested and strongly reduced those of P. digitatum. P. umbilicalis extract strongly inhibited mycelia and conidia growth on all the fungi. E. denticulatum and G. pusillum showed a lower but still significant reduction of mycelia growing and conidia germination on all the pathogens. In trials performed in vivo on wounded fruit, L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis extracts strongly suppressed grey mould on strawberries, brown rot on peaches, and green mould on lemons at 30 g L−1 dose both in preventive and curative treatments; E. denticulatum and G. pusillum poorly reduced disease development. In all cases, a dose-effect of the treatments was observed with an increase of fruit decay inhibition and reduction of disease severity as the dose of extract applied over the wound increased. Moreover, an increased peroxidase activity in the strawberries/B. cinerea and peaches/M. laxa systems by preventive treatment with 30 g L−1 extract was observed. The antifungal activity could be mainly ascribed to a direct toxicity of fatty acids found at the highest concentrations in L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis rather than to those of phenolic compounds and phlorotannins; but it could be related to possible peroxidase-mediated systemic resistance mechanisms elicited by the polysaccharides. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Antifungal activity of crude extracts from brown and red seaweeds by a supercritical carbon dioxide technique against fruit postharvest fungal diseases

De Corato, U.
2017

Abstract

Fungal infections are the main cause of decay on fresh fruit during postharvest phase determining severe losses. Postharvest control is performed by fungicides, but their intense use have aroused issue relating to environmental protection and human health prompting to search alternative control means. The use of biofuel-used seaweed extracts by a supercritical carbon dioxide technique could be a valid alternative during postharvest handling of fresh fruit. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro and in vivo activity of extracts from two brown seaweeds (Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida) and three red seaweeds (Porphyra umbilicalis, Eucheuma denticulatum and Gelidium pusillum) against three postharvest pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa and Penicillium digitatum) using three concentrations of extract (10, 20 and 30 g L−1). The total content of fatty acids of the extracts was determined by CG-MS, those of polysaccharides by HIC, and phenolic compounds (phlorotannins) by HPLC-DAD. Twenty fatty acids were quantified in the extracts, while three polysaccharides categories and three phlorotannins classes were identified only in brown seaweed extracts. L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis showed the highest antifungal efficacy on in vitro cultures of the pathogens. L. digitata and U. pinnatifida completely inhibited mycelia growing and conidial germination of B. cinerea and M. laxa at the highest dose tested and strongly reduced those of P. digitatum. P. umbilicalis extract strongly inhibited mycelia and conidia growth on all the fungi. E. denticulatum and G. pusillum showed a lower but still significant reduction of mycelia growing and conidia germination on all the pathogens. In trials performed in vivo on wounded fruit, L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis extracts strongly suppressed grey mould on strawberries, brown rot on peaches, and green mould on lemons at 30 g L−1 dose both in preventive and curative treatments; E. denticulatum and G. pusillum poorly reduced disease development. In all cases, a dose-effect of the treatments was observed with an increase of fruit decay inhibition and reduction of disease severity as the dose of extract applied over the wound increased. Moreover, an increased peroxidase activity in the strawberries/B. cinerea and peaches/M. laxa systems by preventive treatment with 30 g L−1 extract was observed. The antifungal activity could be mainly ascribed to a direct toxicity of fatty acids found at the highest concentrations in L. digitata, U. pinnatifida and P. umbilicalis rather than to those of phenolic compounds and phlorotannins; but it could be related to possible peroxidase-mediated systemic resistance mechanisms elicited by the polysaccharides. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Postharvest pathogen;Polysaccharide;Fatty acid;Phenolic compound;Biofuel-used marine macroalgae;Enzymatic activity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/718
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