Human diseases are characterized by the perpetuation of an inflammatory condition in which the levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are quite high. Excessive ROS production leads to DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, conditions that lead to a worsening of inflammatory disorders. In particular, compromised mitochondria sustain a stressful condition in the cell, such that mitochondrial dysfunctions become pathogenic, causing human disorders related to inflammatory reactions. Indeed, the triggered inflammation loses its beneficial properties and turns harmful if dysregulation and dysfunctions are not addressed. Thus, reducing oxidative stress with ROS scavenger compounds has proven to be a successful approach to reducing inflammation. Among these, natural compounds, in particular, polyphenols, alkaloids and coenzyme Q10, thanks to their antioxidant properties, are capable of inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and the expression of target genes, including those involved in inflammation. Even more, clinical trials, and in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of phytosomes, which are capable of increasing the bioavailability and effectiveness of natural compounds, and have long been considered an effective non-pharmacological therapy. Therefore, in this review, we wanted to highlight the relationship between inflammation, altered mitochondrial oxidative activity in pathological conditions, and the beneficial effects of phytosomes. To this end, a PubMed literature search was conducted with a focus on various in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials from 2014 to 2022.

Inflammation, Mitochondria and Natural Compounds Together in the Circle of Trust

Spagnoletta A.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Human diseases are characterized by the perpetuation of an inflammatory condition in which the levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are quite high. Excessive ROS production leads to DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, conditions that lead to a worsening of inflammatory disorders. In particular, compromised mitochondria sustain a stressful condition in the cell, such that mitochondrial dysfunctions become pathogenic, causing human disorders related to inflammatory reactions. Indeed, the triggered inflammation loses its beneficial properties and turns harmful if dysregulation and dysfunctions are not addressed. Thus, reducing oxidative stress with ROS scavenger compounds has proven to be a successful approach to reducing inflammation. Among these, natural compounds, in particular, polyphenols, alkaloids and coenzyme Q10, thanks to their antioxidant properties, are capable of inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and the expression of target genes, including those involved in inflammation. Even more, clinical trials, and in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of phytosomes, which are capable of increasing the bioavailability and effectiveness of natural compounds, and have long been considered an effective non-pharmacological therapy. Therefore, in this review, we wanted to highlight the relationship between inflammation, altered mitochondrial oxidative activity in pathological conditions, and the beneficial effects of phytosomes. To this end, a PubMed literature search was conducted with a focus on various in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials from 2014 to 2022.
2023
Cytokines
Inflammatory response
Mitochondrial dysfunction
Nutraceuticals
Phytosome
Reactive oxygen species
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/75328
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