The leading mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their damaging effects are the promotion of oxidative stress, the induction of an inflammatory response, and the deregulation of the immune system by reducing its ability to limit infectious agents’ spreading. This influence starts in the prenatal age and continues during childhood, the most susceptible period of life, due to a lower efficiency of oxidative damage detoxification, a higher metabolic and breathing rate, and enhanced oxygen consumption per unit of body mass. Air pollution is involved in acute disorders like asthma exacerbations and upper and lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis, tuberculosis, and pneumoniae. Pollutants can also contribute to the onset of chronic asthma, and they can lead to a deficit in lung function and growth, long-term respiratory damage, and eventually chronic respiratory illness. Air pollution abatement policies, applied in the last decades, are contributing to mitigating air quality issues, but more efforts should be encouraged to improve acute childhood respiratory disease with possible positive long-term effects on lung function. This narrative review aims to summarize the most recent studies on the links between air pollution and childhood respiratory illness.

Outdoor Air Pollution and Childhood Respiratory Disease: The Role of Oxidative Stress

Carbone C.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The leading mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their damaging effects are the promotion of oxidative stress, the induction of an inflammatory response, and the deregulation of the immune system by reducing its ability to limit infectious agents’ spreading. This influence starts in the prenatal age and continues during childhood, the most susceptible period of life, due to a lower efficiency of oxidative damage detoxification, a higher metabolic and breathing rate, and enhanced oxygen consumption per unit of body mass. Air pollution is involved in acute disorders like asthma exacerbations and upper and lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis, tuberculosis, and pneumoniae. Pollutants can also contribute to the onset of chronic asthma, and they can lead to a deficit in lung function and growth, long-term respiratory damage, and eventually chronic respiratory illness. Air pollution abatement policies, applied in the last decades, are contributing to mitigating air quality issues, but more efforts should be encouraged to improve acute childhood respiratory disease with possible positive long-term effects on lung function. This narrative review aims to summarize the most recent studies on the links between air pollution and childhood respiratory illness.
2023
air pollution
air quality
children
lung function
oxidative stress
respiratory disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/76008
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