Several experimental facilities, mainly focused on nuclear fusion applications, propose lithium as main coolant and/or tritium breeder material, limiter or divertor for its advantageous properties. Lithium fire hazard represents a critical risk for the production of an important population of reactive, corrosive and toxic aerosols, and for the potential mobilization, transport and release of radioactive species, initially retained in the molten metal, as in experimental facilities like the IFMIF-DONES accelerator neutron source. Consequently, a specific methodology should be developed for managing possible lithium fire scenarios that could occur during the lifetime of these unique facilities. Applying the Defense-in-Depth principle to minimize the fire risk in the particular case of the IFMIF-DONES plant, this work describes a set of passive and active measures for lithium fire prevention, detection and mitigation in compliance with main international and national standards on fire protection. According to the present safety analyses, active measures, including the use of fixed extinguishing systems employing chemical agents, do not seem to be entirely reliable in case of large lithium fires, for which more preferable passive fire protection measures are also being considered to be implemented in the final design of IFMIF-DONES, such as room inertization, catch pans and drain systems, constituting together a main line of defense to safely manage potential lithium fire scenarios.

Lithium fire protection design approach in IFMIF-DONES facility

Nitti F. S.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Several experimental facilities, mainly focused on nuclear fusion applications, propose lithium as main coolant and/or tritium breeder material, limiter or divertor for its advantageous properties. Lithium fire hazard represents a critical risk for the production of an important population of reactive, corrosive and toxic aerosols, and for the potential mobilization, transport and release of radioactive species, initially retained in the molten metal, as in experimental facilities like the IFMIF-DONES accelerator neutron source. Consequently, a specific methodology should be developed for managing possible lithium fire scenarios that could occur during the lifetime of these unique facilities. Applying the Defense-in-Depth principle to minimize the fire risk in the particular case of the IFMIF-DONES plant, this work describes a set of passive and active measures for lithium fire prevention, detection and mitigation in compliance with main international and national standards on fire protection. According to the present safety analyses, active measures, including the use of fixed extinguishing systems employing chemical agents, do not seem to be entirely reliable in case of large lithium fires, for which more preferable passive fire protection measures are also being considered to be implemented in the final design of IFMIF-DONES, such as room inertization, catch pans and drain systems, constituting together a main line of defense to safely manage potential lithium fire scenarios.
2023
Fire protection
IFMIF-DONES
Lithium
Nuclear fusion
Safety
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12079/76467
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