This article depicts the scenario in which hydrogen appears as the best candidate fuel for long range transportation with potentially zero emissions. Main characteristics of hydrogen that make it appealing and exploitable in applications are described and compared to those of other common fuels. A historical journey through aerospace industry applications of hydrogen since its discovery is provided, considering turbojet, ramjet, scramjet and rocket engines. Current and future technology levels are reported. © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.