Pellet injection represents, to date, the most promising option for core fuelling of the EU-DEMO tokamak. Simulations with the HPI2 pellet ablation/deposition code indicate, however, that sufficiently deep fuel deposition requires injection from the High Field Side (HFS) at velocities ≳1 km/s. Two complementary inboard injection schemes are being explored: one makes use of guide tubes with curvature radii ≥6 m in the attempt of preserving pellet integrity at speeds of ˜1 km/s, the other is investigating the feasibility of injecting high-speed (˜3 km/s) pellets along “direct line of sight” (DLS) trajectories, from either the HFS or a vertical port. Options using quasi-vertical DLS paths routed across the upper vertical port have been explored first, as they can be more easily integrated, Unfortunately, the radial position of the available vertical access (≳9 m from the machine axis) turns out to be unfavorable; further simulations with the HPI2 code predict indeed that vertical injection may be effective only if pellets trajectories are well inboard the magnetic axis. High-speed injection through oblique inboard “DLS” paths, not interfering with the Central Solenoid (CS), are instead predicted to yield good performance, provided that the injection location is ≲2.5 m from the equatorial mid-plane. The angular spread of high-speed free-flight pellets, recently measured using an existing facility, turns out to be enclosed within ˜ 0.7°. This scatter cone may require significant cut off volume of the Breeding Blanket (BB). Moreover, DLS in-vessel conical penetrations may increase the neutron flux outside of the bio-shield, and also result in a significant heat load in the cryogenic pellet source. These issues are being investigated, to identify suitable shielding strategies; preliminary results are reported. The suitability of straight guide tubes to reduce the scatter cone, and hence the corresponding open cross section on BB penetration and the neutron streaming, will be explored as a further step.
|Titolo:||Addressing the feasibility of inboard direct-line injection of high-speed pellets, for core fueling of DEMO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|